On January 6, 2009, President George W. Bush established the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument under the authority of the Antiquities Act of 1906. The monument incorporates approximately 86,888 square miles within its boundaries, which extend 50 nautical miles from the mean low water lines of Howland, Baker, and Jarvis Islands; Johnston, Wake, and Palmyra Atolls; and Kingman Reef. All these islands have coral reefs.
According to the Marine Conservation Institute, commercial fishing was banned under the presidential order establishing the monument, but NOAA and the US Fish & Wildlife Service have failed to implement the commercial fishing ban. MCI has filed a petition with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Commerce requesting enforcement of the ban.